Periodontal diseases is something that can happen to anyone. The treatment of these diseases is dealt with under the branch of periodontology. In this article, we will discuss the most common periodontal diseases and their causes.

What Is Periodontology?

Periodontology is the branch of dentistry that deals with the treatment of diseases of the gingiva and the periodontium. It is also known as dental periodontology. This branch of dentistry deals with the gingiva, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and cementum.

The gingiva is the soft tissue that covers the alveolar bone. The periodontal ligament is the specialized connective tissue that attaches the alveolar bone to the tooth.

The cementum is the thin layer of hard tissue that covers the root of the tooth. Under normal circumstances, the gingiva and cementum are attached to the tooth by the periodontal ligament.

What Causes Periodontal Diseases?

Periodontal diseases are caused by poor oral hygiene and poor nutritional status of the body. The major causes of periodontal diseases include:

  • Chewing of tobacco
  • Poor and improper brushing or bad oral hygiene
  • Excessive plaque formation and tartar accumulation
  • Long exposure to tobacco and alcohol
  • Poor nutritional status of the body
  • Aging of the gingiva
  • Microorganisms in the mouth

These are the common causes of periodontal diseases. They lead to the formation of plaque in the mouth. The accumulation of plaque and tartar leads to periodontal diseases.

What Are the Most Common Periodontal Diseases?

The most common periodontal diseases, their causes, and their symptoms are as follows:

1. Periodontitis

Periodontitis is a bacterial infection of the gingiva, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. It is also known as chronic periodontal disease. The bacteria accumulate in the plaque in the mouth and start living in the system. The bacteria produce toxins, which lead to periodontal disease.

The most common cause of periodontitis is the excessive accumulation of plaque, which in turn leads to the formation of tartar. Periodontitis is accompanied by the symptoms like pain in the gums, bleeding of the gums, swelling of the gums, bad breath, and loosing of the teeth.

2. Gingivitis

Gingivitis is caused by the accumulation of plaque in the mouth, leading to the formation of tartar, which in turn leads to necrosis of the gingiva. This necrosis of the gingiva leads to inflammation, which is exactly what gingivitis is.

The gingiva becomes red in color and starts swelling and bleeding. The teeth can look yellow in color.

3. Periodontal Pocket

A periodontal pocket is a condition in which the periodontal ligament is destroyed, and the pocket extends deeply into the alveolar bone. The pocket is formed due to the periodontal disease in which the tooth becomes loose.

4. Periodontal Abscess

A periodontal abscess is a condition in which pus accumulates in the pocket of the periodontal disease. The pus formation is a result of a bacterial infection. The abscess is a painful condition that leads to the swelling of the gingiva.

The diseases and conditions mentioned above are all different kinds of periodontal diseases. However, they are all caused by similar habits, which is why it is important to take care of your teeth.


Periodontal diseases are caused by poor oral hygiene and poor nutritional status of the body. To prevent periodontal diseases, you need to practice good oral hygiene. You also need to maintain a good nutritional status for the body. In addition, you need to visit a periodontist for periodontal care and treatment in case of any periodontal disease.

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